Jose B. Cibelli; Ann A. Kiessling; Kerrianne Cunniff; Charlotte Richards; Robert P. Lanza; Michael D. West, "Rapid Communication: Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Humans: Pronuclear and Early Embryonic Development," e-biomed: The Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Vol. 2, pp. 25 -- 31, DOI: 10.1089/152489001753262168 (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc, November 26, 2001).
Human therapeutic cloning requires the reprogramming of a somatic cell by nuclear transfer to generate autologous totipotent stem cells. We have parthenogenetically activated 22 human eggs and also performed nuclear transfer in 17 metaphase II eggs. Cleavage beyond the eight-cell stage was obtained in the parthenogenetic-activated eggs, and blastocoele cavities were observed in six. Three somatic cell-derived embryos developed beyond the pronuclear stage up to the six-cell stage. The ability to create autologous embryos represents the first step towards generating immune-compatible stem cells that could be used to overcome the problem of immune rejection in regenerative medicine.
Click for the full paper from the On-Line Journal Edited by Dr. William Haseltine, CEO of Human Genome Sciences of Rockville, MD and published by Mary Ann Liebert of Larchmont, New York.
[ Editor's Note: Although this is a relatively brief paper, I believe that it actually could have been split into two shorter papers with different titles, since two radically different methodologies were being utilized to develop the embryos ( Parthenogenic Activation (PA) and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)). Thus, the reasons for failure of the embryos to thrive (continue to cleave in vitro ) beyond a three-day period was never made clear, contributing to the confusion over why embryonic stem cells, which was the goal of the project, were never obtained.]